List of UPSC(IAS) Optional Subject Detailed Syllabus with PDF

UPSC Exam syllabus

In this article, We provide you all UPSC Optional subject syllabus pdf for free. You can download all the subject syllabus in PDF format(according to your requirements).

Before starting the discussion on IAS Syllabus, we are going to have a brief overview of the UPSC Mains Exam.

The UPSC Main Examination consists of 2 Qualifying papers and 7 merit ranking papers listed below:


Qualifying PapersMerit Ranking Papers
  • English
  • Any One Indian Language from the Eighth Schedule of The Constitution of India
  • UPSC Essay
  • General Studies Paper I
  • General Studies Paper-II
  • General Studies Paper III
  • General Studies Paper IV
  • Optional Paper I
  • Optional Paper-II


For Civil Services Exam, UPSC provides a list of optional subjects. Candidates will have to choose one option for the main examination.

The UPSC optional subject consists of two papers and each paper is of 250 marks.

Candidates can choose from a list of UPSC optional subjects including literature subjects (English and Indian languages).



Also, Read More UPSC(IAS) Exam Pattern.
How to  Crack UPSC Exam in First Attempt.
Practice UPSC Exam Previous Year Question Papers
Download UPSC Literature optional subject syllabus


List of 24 UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus

The UPSC Optional Subject List consists of 48 subjects out of which one can be selected by the candidate for both the papers.

Here, we have collected the detailed UPSC syllabus of All 24 optional subjects for the civil services 2022 main exam.

Candidate can choose our one favorite subject from the list of Optional subject. And Download the syllabus to make proper planning for your IAS Exam 2022.

The UPSC syllabus helps you to boost your IAS 2022 Exam preparation.


1.UPSC Mains Syllabus- Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 

Below this PDF, I will cover UPSC’s mains optional subjects syllabus PDF of Animal husbandry and veterinary science subject.

In this Animal husbandry and veterinary science mains syllabus, I cover all important topics like:-

In UPSC Mains Paper 1st

    • Animal Nutrition:
    • Physiology of animal
    • Reproduction of animal:
    • Livestock Production and Management:
    • Genetics and Animal Breeding:
    • Extension:

In UPSC Mais Paper 2nd

    • Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Hygiene:
    • Animal Diseases:
    • Veterinary Public Health:
    • Milk and Milk Products Technology:
    • Meat Hygiene and Technology:

From the below button, candidate can get detailed IAS animal husbandry and veterinary science mains syllabus,

Clink to?Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Main Syllabus PDF

2. UPSC Agriculture Mains Syllabus

Below PDF, I covered UPSC optional Agriculture mains syllabus in detail.

In this Agriculture syllabus, I show you some important topics for your IAS Exam preparation.

  • It is a highly scoring optional subject in UPSC IAS Mains Exam.
  • Comparatively Short syllabus.

For Example:-

UPSC(CSE) Mains Paper 1st syllabus

    • Ecology
    • Agroecology
    • Cropping patterns
    • Social forestry
    • Agricultural extension,

UPSC(CSE) Mains Paper 2nd syllabus

    • Cell structure, function, and cell cycle
    • History of plant breeding:
    • Seed production and processing technologies
    • Principles of Plant Physiology:
    • Enzymes and plant pigments;
    • Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices, and flower crops
    • Food production and consumption trends in India

Read More UPSC mains agriculture syllabus form pdf

Click to ? Download UPSC Mains Agriculture Syllabus PDF

3. UPSC Anthropology Mains Syllabus

With the help of the below PDF, the candidate can get Detailed information about UPSC Mains Anthropology optional subject syllabus to make proper planning for IAS Exam.

You get an idea about the anthropology syllabus, I discuss topics in this pdf

In IAS Mains Paper 1st

    • Meaning, scope, and development of Anthropology.
    • The Nature of Culture:
    • Family:
    • Economic organization:
    • Religion:
    • Anthropological theories:
    • Research methods in anthropology:
    • Human Genetics
    • Concept of human growth and development:
    • Applications of Anthropology:

In IAS Mains Paper 1st

    • Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization
    • Demographic profile of India
    • Emergence and growth of anthropology in India
    • Indian Village:
    • The tribal situation in India –
    • Tribe and nation-state
    • Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development

If you want to know about the detail IAS Anthropology Mains Syllabus

Click to ?Download Anthropology Mains Syllabus PDF

4.UPSC Mains Syllabus- Botany Subject 

In this PDF, I covered the detailed UPSC mains optional subject syllabus of Botany for help to prepare a better strategy for IAS Exam.

The important topic from Botany subjects syllabus like:-

In UPSC Mains Paper 1st

    • Microbiology and Plant Pathology:
    • Cryptogams:
    • Phanerogams:
    • Plant Resource Development:
    • Morphogenesis:

In UPSC Mains Paper 2nd

    • Cell Biology:
    • Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Evolution:
    • Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:
    • Physiology and Biochemistry:
    • Ecology and Plant Geography:

For More Details

Click to ? Download UPSC Botany Subject syllabus PDF


5.UPSC Mains Chemistry Syllabus

From the below, you can know about the syllabus of UPSC Optional mains chemistry subjects.

I cover some important topic below this PDF like:-

Paper 1st of UPSC Mains

    • Atomic Structure:
    • Chemical Bonding:
    • Solid State:
    • The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon:
    • Thermodynamics
    • Electrochemistry
    • Photochemistry:
    • General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements:
    • Oher

Paper 2nd of UPSC Mains

    • Delocalized Covalent Bonding:
    • Pericyclic Reactions:
    • Synthetic Uses of Reagents
    • Photochemistry:
    • Reaction Mechanisms:

For More Details-

Click to? Download Chemistry Main Syllabus PDF


6.UPSC Civil Engineering Main Syllabus 

Below the link, you can download a PDF of the UPSC optional subject Civil engineering mains syllabus for free.

Below pdf, I will discuss you some important topic like:

In Paper 1st

    • Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials, and Structural
    • Design of Structures: Steel, Concrete, and Masonry Structures:
    •  Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines:
    • Geotechnical Engineering:

In Paper 2nd

    • Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management
    • Surveying and Transportation Engineering :
    • Hydrology, Water Resources, and Engineering:
    • Environmental Engineering:

Download PDF of more detail

Click to?Get UPSC Civil Engineering Main Syllabus PDF

7.UPSC Commerce & Accountancy Main Syllabus 

Check the below pdf, to know about the optional subject of UPSC Commerce & Accountancy Main Syllabus.

In this pdf, I will be going to cover detailed Commerce & Accountancy Main Syllabus topic like:-


    • Accounting and Finance Accounting:
    • Taxation & Auditing:
    • Financial Management:
    • Financial Markets and Institutions:


    • Organisation Theory and Behaviour
    • Human Resource Management
    • Industrial Relations

For Detailed Information

Click to ?Download Commerce & Accountancy Main Syllabus PDF


8.UPSC Economics Main Syllabus

Here, I will show you the UPSC Optional Economics Mains subject syllabus PDF for your better preparation.

In this pdf, I will cover detailed information about some topics like:-

In Mains Paper 1st

    • Advanced Micro Economics:
    • Advanced Macro Economics:
    • Money – Banking and Finance
    • International Economics:
    • Growth and Development:

In Mains Paper 2nd:

    • Indian Economy in PreIndependence Era:
    • Indian Economy after Independence:
      • The Pre Liberalization
      • The Post Liberalization Era:

Know about economics detailed syllabus

Click to ?Download Economics Main Syllabus PDF


9.UPSC Electrical Engineering Main Syllabus

Below the PDF, I will cover the detailed syllabus of UPSC optional subject- Electrical Engineering Main Syllabus.

Topics covered in this pdf like:-

UPSC Mains Paper-1st

    • Circuit Theory:
    • Signals & Systems:
    • E.M. Theory:
    • Analog Electronics:
    • Digital Electronics
    • Analog Communication:

UPSC Mains Paper-2nd

    • Control Systems:
    • Microprocessors and Microcomputers:
    • Measurement and Instrumentation:
    • Power Systems:
    • Power System Protection:
    • Digital Communication:

Know in detailed Electrical engineering syllabus

Click to? Downlaod Electrical Engineering Main Syllabus PDF

10.UPSC Geography Main Syllabus

I will be going to cover the UPSC Optional subject syllabus of Geography subject to boost your preparation.

Some important topic likes, i cover in this pdf

Mains Paper-I

    • Physical Geography:
      • Geomorphology
      • Climatology, Biogeography:
      • Oceanography, Environmental Geography:
    • Human Geography:
      • Perspectives in Human Geography:
      • Economic Geography:
      • Population and Settlement Geography:
      • .Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:

Mains Paper-2nd

    • Geography Of India:
      • Physical Setting:
      • Resources, Industry:
      • Regional Development and Planning:
      • Transport, Communication, and Trade:
      • Cultural Setting, Political Aspects:
      • Contemporary Issues

For More Detailed about geography

Click to ?Get Geography Main Syllabus PDF

11. UPSC Geology Main Syllabus

In this section, I will show you detailed information about the UPSC optional subject of Geology mains syllabus.

Some important topics like in PDF

In Mains Paper 1st:

    • General Geology:
    • Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:
    • Structural Geology:
    • Paleontology:
    • Indian Stratigraphy:
    • Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:

In Mains Paper 2nd

    • Mineralogy:
    • Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
    • Sedimentary Petrology:
    • Economic Geology:
    • Mining Geology
    • Geochemistry and Environmental Geology:

For detailed information click the below link

Click to ? Download Geology Main Syllabus PDf


12. UPSC History Mains Syllabus 

Get Detailed information about UPSC Mains History optional subject syllabus for help to boost your preparation.

Some important topics, I cover in pdf like:


    • Foreign accounts, Megalithic Cultures, Aryans and Vedic Period
    • Period of Mahajanapadas, Mauryan Empire, Mauryan Period
    • Vakatakas and Vardhanas, The regional States during Gupta Era
    • Themes in Early Indian Cultural History,
    • Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Architecture, Akbar

Paper- 2nd

    • European Penetration into India, Rise of the Unipolar World:
    • Underdevelopment, Liberation from Colonial Rule:
    • Nation-State System: Industrialization:
    • Origins of Modern Politics
    • Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
    • Cripps Mission, The Nehru Report, Rise of Gandhi;

For more details from IAS history mains syllabus pdf

Click to ?Download UPSC History Main Syllabus PDF

13. UPSC Optional Law Mains Paper Syllabus 

In this PDF, I will cover a detailed syllabus of Law UPSC optional subject for improve your preparation strategy.

Some important topic which covered in pdf

In UPSC Mains Paper-I

    • Constitutional and Administrative Law Constitution and
    • Services under the Union and the States:
    • Ombudsman, Individuals, United Nations:
    • Lawful recourse to force:
    • New international economic order and monetary law:

In UPSC Mains Paper-2nd

    • Law of Crimes General principles of criminal liability:
    • Plea bargaining]
    • General defences
    • Sale of goods and hire purchase

For detailed information

Click to ? Download Law Main Syllabus PDF

14. UPSC Optional Physics Mains Syllabus

Get detailed information about the UPSC optional subject syllabus of Physics to improve your UPSC(IAS) exam preparation.

In Physics pdf, I cover some important topics like:-

For Mains Paper 1st

    • Mechanics of Particles:
    • Waves and Optics:
    • Electricity and Magnetism:
    • Thermal and Statistical Physics:

For Mains Paper 2nd

    • Quantum Mechanics:
    • Atomic and Molecular Physics:
    • Nuclear and Particle Physics:
    • Solid State Physics, Devices, and Electronics:

Click to below link, for detailed information

Click to ? Download UPSC Physics Main Syllabus PDF

15. UPSC Public Administration Main Syllabus

In this section, I will show you UPSC Public Administration Mains optional subject Syllabus for your IAS exam preparation.

Topics which I cover in Public Administration Main Syllabus pdf

In UPSC Mains Paper 1st

    • Administrative Theory:
      • Introduction:
      • Administrative Thought, behavior, and Law
      • Organizations:
      • Accountability and control:
      • Comparative Public Administration:
      • Development Dynamics:
      • Techniques of Administrative Improvement:
      • Financial Administration:

In UPSC Mains Paper 2nd

    • Indian Administration
      • . Evolution of Indian Administration:
      • Philosophical and Constitutional framework of
      • Public Sector Undertakings
      • Union Government and Administration:
      • Plans and Priorities:
      • Administrative Reforms since Independence:
      • Significant issues in Indian Administration:
      • Urban Local Government:
      • Rural Development:

Get pdf for more detail

Click to ? Download Public Administration Main Syllabus PDF

16. UPSC Optional Political Science Main Syllabus

From the below PDF, the Candidate can get detailed information about the UPSC optional subject syllabus of Political Science to improve your UPSC exam preparation.

In this Political science pdf, i cover some useful topics

For example:-

Mains Paper 1st

    • Political Theory and Indian Politics:
      • Theories of the state:
      • Justice:
      • Equality:
      • Indian Political Thought:
      • Western Political Thought:
    • Indian Government and politics
      • Indian Nationalism:
      • Making of the Indian Constitution
      • Principal Organs of the Union Government:
      • Grassroots Democracy:
      • Planning and Economic Development:
      • Social Movements:

Mains Paper 2nd

    • Comparative Politics and International Relations Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics:
      • Comparative Politics:
      • State in comparative perspective:
      • Globalization:
      • Key concepts in International Relations:
      • Changing International Political Order:
      • Contemporary Global Concerns:
    • India and the World
      • Indian Foreign Policy:
      • India and South Asia:
      • India and South Asia:
      • India and the UN System:
      • India and the Nuclear Question
      • Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy

Download for detailed syllabus

Click to ?Downlaod Political Science Main Syllabus PDF

17. UPSC Optional Philosophy Mains Syllabus 

In this Philosophy PDF, I covered the detailed syllabus of Philosophy UPSC optional subject for improving your IAS exam preparation strategy.

Important topics which I covered in this pdf

Philosophy UPSC Mains Paper-I syllabus

    • History and Problems of Philosophy
      • Plato and Aristotle:
      • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz)
      • Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein:
      • Logical Positivism:
      • Dialectical Method
      • Phenomenology
      • Yoga:
      • Aurobindo and other

Philosophy UPSC Mains Paper-IInd syllabus

    • Socio-Political Philosophy
      • Social and Political Ideals
      • Sovereignty:
      • Political Ideologies:
      • Gender Discrimination
      • Caste Discrimination:
      • Humanism

Download to know in detailed

Click to ?Download Philosophy Main Syllabus PDF

18. UPSC Medical Science Main Syllabus

In this section, I covered detailed information about the UPSC optional subject of Medical Science’s mains syllabus for help to IAS Exam Preparation.

In this Medical Science PDF, I covered these topics:-

Mains Paper 1st

    • Human Anatomy:
    • Human Physiology
    • Biochemistry:
    • Pathology:
    • Microbiology:
    • Pharmacology:
    • Forensic Medicine and Toxicology:

Mains Paper 2nd

    • General Medicine:
    • Pediatrics:
    • Dermatology:
    • General Surgery:
    • Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning:
    • Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine):

Download pdf for detailed Medical science Syllabus

Click to ?Download UPSC Medical Science Main Syllabus PDF

19. UPSC Mechanical Engineering Main Syllabus

Below this Mechanical Engineering PDF, I covered UPSC’s mains optional subjects syllabus of Mechanical Engineering subject to prepare better IAS Exam strategy.

Topics which I covered in this Mechanical Engineering PDF

UPSC Mechanical Engineering Paper 1st syllabus

    • Mechanics:
    • Engineering Materials:
    • Theory of Machines:
    • Manufacturing Science:
    • System operations and control:

UPSC Mechanical Engineering Paper 2nd syllabus

    • Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Turbine:
    • Heat Transfer:
    • Engines:
    • Steam Engineering:
    • Refrigeration and air-conditioning:

Get Detailed syllabus for UPSC Exam Preparation

Click to ?Download UPDC Mechanical Engineering Main Syllabus PDF

20. UPSC Optional Mathematics Mains Syllabus

With the help of the below PDF, the Candidate can get detailed information about the UPSC optional subject syllabus of Mathematics to prepare a better strategy for the UPSC exam.

Follow the topic which I mentioned detailed in Mathematics PDF

Mathematics Paper-I syllabus

    • Linear Algebra:
    • Calculus:
    • Analytic Geometry:
    • Ordinary Differential Equations:
    • Dynamics & Statics:
    • Vector Analysis:

Mathematics Paper-IInd syllabus

    • Algebra:
    • Real Analysis:
    • Complex Analysis:
    • Linear Programming:
    • Partial Differential Equations:
    • Numerical Analysis and Computer programming:

Get a detailed IAS Mathematics Mains Syllabus from the below button

Click to ? Download Mathematics Main Syllabus pdf

21. UPSC Management Main Syllabus

Get detailed information about the UPSC Management optional subject syllabus help to prepare the UPSC Exam strategy and improve your UPSC exam preparation.

UPSC Mains Management Syllabus The candidate should make a study of the concept and development of management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision making keeping in view the changes in the strategic and operative environment.

In Management pdf, I cover some important topics like:-

Mains Management Paper – I

    • Managerial Function and Process:
    • Organizational Behaviour and Design:
    • Human Resource Management:
    • Accounting for Managers:
    • Financial Management:
    • Marketing Management:

Mains Management Paper-II

    • Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making:
    • Production and Operations Management:
    • Management Information System:
    • Government Business Interface:
    • Strategic Management:
    • International Business:

Read more from IAS Management mains syllabus pdf

Click to ? Download Management Main Syllabus PDF

22. UPSC Sociology Main Syllabus

From the below Sociology PDF, the Candidate can get detailed information about the UPSC optional subject syllabus of Sociology to prepare a proper strategy for IAS Exam.

Topics, I covered in the sociology PDF

UPSC Mains sociology PAPER – I syllabus

      • Sociology
      • Sociology as Science:
      • Research Methods and Analysis:
      • Sociological Thinkers:
      • Stratification and Mobility:
      • Politics and Society:
      • Systems of Kinship:
      • Social Change in Modern Society:

UPSC Mains sociology PAPER – IInd syllabus

      • Introducing Indian Society:
      • Social Structure:
      • Social Changes in India:
      • other

To know about details sociology mains syllabus

Click to ?Download UPSC Sociology Main Syllabus PDF

23. UPSC Statistics Main Syllabus 

Below the Statistics PDF, I covered the detailed syllabus of UPSC Statistics mains optional subject syllabus to boost your preparation.

In this pdf, I covered some important topics like:

In Statistics Mains Paper 1st

    • Probability:
    • Statistical Inference:
    • Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis:
    • Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments:

In Statistics Mains Paper 2nd

    • Industrial Statistics:
    • Optimization Techniques:
    • Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics:
    • Demography and Psychometry:

For Detailed Statistics syllabus

Click to ? Get UPSC Statistics Main Syllabus PDF

24. UPSC Optional Zoology Mains Exam Syllabus

In this Zoology paper pdf, I will show you UPSC Zoology Mains optional subject Syllabus for Prepare your IAS Exam strategy.

The probability of their selection will be increased due to the low competition and the specialized nature of the syllabus.

Some topics which I covered in the pdf of the IAS Zoology Exam Syllabus.

IAS Mains Paper 1st

    • Non-chordata and Chordata:
    • Ecology:
    • Ethology:
    • Economic Zoology:
    • Biostatistics:
    • Instrumentation Methods:

IAS Mains Paper 2nd

    • Cell Biology:
    • Genetics:
    • Evolution:
    • Systematics:
    • Biochemistry:
    • Physiology (with special reference to mammals):
    • Developmental Biology:

Read more about the UPSC zoology syllabus

Click to ?Download UPSC Zoology Mains syllabus PDF



Frequently Asked Question:

Question: Which is the Best Optional Subject for UPSC?

Answer: The top 8 Optional subjects in UPSC chooses the maximum time by the candidates. Follow the below list

  • Medical Science
  • Literature
  • Anthropology
  • Public Administration
  • Psychology
  • Law
  • Geography
  • History

Question: Is Geography a good option for IAS?
Answer: Geography is one of the most popular optional subjects for IAS aspirants. The significant overlap of the Geography elective course with GS1 and CSE Preliminary exam is one of the major reasons for its popularity.

Question: Does the UPSC syllabus change?

Answer: Yes, check the UPSC notification for the particular exam year to see the latest syllabus. Download the updated 2022 UPSC Syllabus PDF here.

Now that you have a clear picture of how many optional subjects are selected for IAS, you can choose the right optional subject and start your IAS exam preparation.


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